About GMJ Medicine

GMJ Medicine is an open-access, online, peer-reviewed journal that has been published by the Afarand Scholarly Publishing Institute in Germany since 2017. The new series of the journal started publishing in January 2021. The publication frequency of GMJ Medicine is Quarterly (4 issues per year).  
All research articles submitted to GMJ Medicine should be original in nature, never previously published in any journal or undergoing such process across the globe. All the submissions will be peer-reviewed by the panel of experts associated with a particular field.
8 days
Average Time to First Review
60 days
Average Time to Accept
12.3 days
Average Time to Publish
40.66 %
Acceptance Rate
Editor-in-chief
Ahmed El-Yazbi
Professor of Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Scientific Supporters
Neuroscience Network (NN)
International Center for Intelligent Research
International Center for Neuroscience Research
Articles

The application of the theory of planned behavior in the choice of delivery method for first-time pregnant women in Sirjan

Razieh Hassanzadeh, Hakimeh Khaleghi, Zohreh Manzaritavakoli, Ali Saeidinia, Leila Namdar, Zahra Askari, Mahdis Bashi
Aims: Cesarean method is one of the most common surgical procedures among women in the recent years. Lack of information and negative attitudes towards natural childbirth are the most main the reasons behind the increase in pregnant women’s tendency toward the cesarean section. This study investigated the effect of educational intervention based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) on natural childbirth tendency among the primiparous women of Sirjan in 2022. Materials and Methods: This controlled interventional research with a population consisted of 140 primiparous women (n=70 women in each group) who attended the health centers in Sirjan in their 18th to 30th month of pregnancy. Multi- stage sampling method was applied to select participants. The intervention was carried out based on the TPB during four 45-60 min sessions. A questionnaire was used for data collection before and after the intervention. The SPSS22 software, Paired t-test, Independent t-test, Fisher’s exact test, and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data.
 Results: The intervention program had a positive effect on the mothers’ perceived behavioral control (P=0.046). The intervention could increase the number of people who did the natural delivery in the intervention group. There was no improvement in the individuals’ attitude (P= 0.75), subjective norms (P=0.11) and behavior (P=0.23).
Conclusion: In conclusion, the TPB can be effective in reducing elective caesarean section among women under the study. It is recommended that intervention programs are to be designed and carried out based on behavioral change theories.
 
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The Relationship Between Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Growth Factors in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers

F. Ghalami , M.O. Etekochay , H.R. Binutha , M. Haghipanah
Several factors are involved in the healing process of diabetic foot ulcers. Thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. This study was conducted on three groups of subjects. The first group was men and women (n=30) with diabetes and diabetic foot ulcers referring clinical centers in Iran. Another group was including diabetic women and men patients (n=30) without ulcers. Third group was including healthy men and women (n=30). Blood samples were collected and assessed for the serum concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, bFGF, IFN-γ, selenoprotein, PDGF, VEGF and GM-CSF with the help of specific kits. The results showed significant differences between groups for the serum concentrations of TNF-α (P=0.001), IL-1β (P=0.001), IL-6 (P=0.001), bFGF (P=0.001), IFN-γ (P=0.001), selenoprotein (P=0.001), PDGF (P=0.001), VEGF (P=0.001) and GM-CSF (P=0.001). The results showed the serum concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, PDGF, and GM-CSF were significantly higher in the patients with diabetes and foot ulcer, diabetes and healthy subjects, respectively. The results showed a positive correlation between pro-inflammatory cytokines, while a negative correlation was observed between pro-inflammatory cytokines with other variables. In conclusion, pro-inflammatory and inflammatory factors were significantly higher in those with diabetes and especially with diabetic ulcers. The concentration of factors can be considered for the treatment and as markers for the treatment of foot ulcers.
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The Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior in the Choice of Delivery Method for First-Time Pregnant Women in Sirjan

R. Hassanzadeh , H. Khaleghi , Z. Manzaritavakoli , A. Saeidinia , L. Namdar , Z. Askari, M. Bashi
Aims: Cesarean method is one of the most common surgical procedures among women in the recent years. Lack of information and negative attitudes towards natural childbirth are the most main the reasons behind the increase in pregnant women’s tendency toward the cesarean section. This study investigated the effect of educational intervention based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) on natural childbirth tendency among the primiparous women of Sirjan in 2022. Materials & Methods: This controlled interventional research with a population consisted of 140 primiparous women (n=70 women in each group) who attended the health centers in Sirjan in their 18th to 30th month of pregnancy. Multi- stage sampling method was applied to select participants. The intervention was carried out based on the TPB during four 45-60 min sessions. A questionnaire was used for data collection before and after the intervention. The SPSS22 software, Paired t-test, Independent t-test, Fisher’s exact test, and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data.
Findings: The intervention program had a positive effect on the mothers’ perceived behavioral control (P=0.046). The intervention could increase the number of people who did the natural delivery in the intervention group. There was no improvement in the individuals’ attitude (P=0.75), subjective norms (P=0.11) and behavior (P=0.23).
Conclusion: In conclusion, the TPB can be effective in reducing elective caesarean section among women under the study. It is recommended that intervention programs are to be designed and carried out based on behavioral change theories.
 
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The Relationship Between SREBF-1 Polymorphism with Insulin Resistance in Women Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

M. Haghipanah , M.O. Etekochay , M. Saadat , A. Safarbalou
It was reported a significant relation between 54G/C SREBF1 with diabetes. It may be a relation between SREBF-1 polymorphism with insulin resistant in women PCOS but this relation is unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between SREBF-1 polymorphism with insulin resistant in women polycystic ovary syndrome. In this study, 200 subjects were studied including 100 PCOS subjects (Case group) and 100 healthy subjects (control group). Blood samples were taken, demographic characteristics were requested and genomic DNA was extracted. To determine the mutations of 54G/C SREBF1, RFLP-PCR method was used. Following laboratory investigation, the data were investigated in SPSS software. The mutant frequency and its rate were determined by using SPSS software. The mutant allels rate was determined by analysis of variance. The genotypic frequency of GG and CC was significantly higher in patients than in the control group, while the frequency of heterozygosity was significantly higher in the control group than in the PCOS group. Allelic frequency was 78.00 for G allele and 22.00 for C allele in the patient group. In the healthy group, it was 75% for G allele and 25% for C allele.  The results showed that homozygote genotypes had higher sensitivity for higher glucose and insulin resistant. In conclusion, 54G/C polymorphism of SREBF-1 had significant role in PCOS and also a closed relation with glucose and insulin resistant. It could be stated that G/C genotype frequency could be considered as biomarker for detection of PCOS.
 
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An overview on novel antioxidant and anti-cancer properties of lycopene: A Comprehensive Review

Gupta M., Panizai M., Tareen M.F., Doreulee N.
Lycopene, a non-provitamin A carotenoid, is the reason for redness in tomatoes and some other vegetables. Lycopene has also been known as one fat-soluble red pigment that is produced by plants and some microorganisms. Nowadays, the effects of lycopene on healthiness have recently been significantly interested. Antioxidant properties of lycopene have been received attention as an anticancer. Different studies have investigated the effects of lycopene in relation to different cancers types. Lycopene significantly shows powerful anticancer activity against prostate cancer, even in progressed and aggressive condition. This review article aims to introduce the lycopene and possible mechanisms for the treatment of cancer.
 
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Effects of Micronutrients on Improving Fatigue, Weakness and Irritability

M. Milani Fard
Introdaction: Consumption of sugar compounds by disturbing estrogen metabolism increases circulating estrogen and thus exacerbates PMS. Consumption of natural sweet substances such as raisins, dates and the like is unimpeded to a small extent. Some studies show that women with PMS are more likely to use refined sugar and CHO, such as bread, cakes, pastries, and other starchy foods made from white flour, than women with the condition.
Conclusion: If a woman consumes more of her calories from such refined foods with a variety of more nutritious ones, namely whole-grain bread and pastries and fresh fruits with natural sweetness, it leads to a diet rich in nutrients, and possibly Premenstrual symptoms will decrease.
 
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Facial Index of Tehran University of Medical Sciences’ Medical Students; an Anthropometric Study

M. Dodangheh , T. Mokhtari , S. Mojaverrostami , M. Nemati , S. Zarbakhsh, A. Arabkheradmand , Gh. Hassanzadeh
Aims: Facial anthropometry is useful in individual identification and reconstructive surgery. In the present study, we aimed to determine the facial characteristic of the Iranian population through anthropometric study.
Materials & Methods: In a cross sectional study, 200 (100 male and 100 female) volunteer medical students (aged 20-25 years) of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected. The facial variables including total facial height, upper facial height and facial width were measured and accordingly the total facial index and upper facial index were calculated. The data were analyzed using statistical software (SPSS).
Findings: The mean age of subjects was 22.97±1.12 years. The mean total facial height, upper facial height, facial width, total facial index, and upper facial index were 11.155cm,  7.05cm, 11.68cm, 95.75  and 60.55, respectively. The most common types of face were hyperleptoprosopic (54%) and hyperleptene (54%). There were significant differences in total facial height (p<0.0001), upper facial height (p<0.0001), facial width (p=0.02), total facial index (p<0.0001), and upper facial index (p<0.0001) between males and females.
Conclusion: The most frequent face type is hyperleptoprosopic in Iranian population. Additionally, the values of facial characteristics are higher in males than females. So, sexual dimorphism was recorded according to the facial measurements of Iranian population which can be considered in the reconstructive surgeries.
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Modulation of 6-Gingerolin Antidepressant-like Effects in Mice Model

S. Sedighi , B. Nasiri, R. Alipoor , N. MoradiKor
Aims: It has been reported that ginger is involved in serotonergic system. It seems that ginger effect could be attributed to its active compound or gingerol. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of gingerol on antidepressant-like effects by investigation of serotonergic system in mice model.
Materials & Methods: In an experimental design, following pilot study and selection of doses, mice were divided into 4 groups. Receptor antagonists were injected, gingerol was administrated and a trial suspension test was conducted.
Findings: Gingerol could induce antidepressant-like effect (p<0.001), without induction of changes in spontaneous locomotor activity in the open-field test. Pretreatment of mice with pCPA (preventor of serotonin synthesis), WAY100135 (receptor antagonist), ketanserin (5HT2A receptor antagonist), and cyproheptadine (5HT2 receptor antagonist) prevented the antidepressant-like effect induced by the gingerol (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Gingerol is involved in antidepressant-like effects through serotonergic system in mice model.
 
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Effect of Oral Menthol on Antioxidant Status of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome-Induced Wister Rats

B. Mesbahzadeh , M. Garmsiri, F. Jalalvand , L. Shojaie , M.A. Kakar
Aims: Polycystic ovarian syndrome has been related to dyslipidemia and suppression of antioxidant status. However, novel agents such as menthol can be an efficient strategy for alleviation of this syndrome. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of menthol on blood biochemical parameters and antioxidant status in polycystic ovarian syndrome-induced Wistar rats.
Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 50 Wistar rats were used in 5 groups; healthy (negative control), polycystic ovarian syndrome that did not receive any menthol (positive control), and polycystic ovarian syndrome that received 2- (PCOS-2), 4- (PCOS-4) and 6mg/kg of body weight of menthol (PCOS-6). To induce the polycystic ovarian syndrome, 5mg of estradiol valerate was administrated. At the end of the trial session, blood samples were taken to evaluate plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C, ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) and total oxidation status (TOS).
Findings: Induction of polycystic ovarian syndrome increased glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, FRAP, AOPP and TOS, and decrease HDL-C. The use of menthol especially in higher levels improved the mentioned parameters. Polycystic ovarian syndrome also increased body weight and oral treatment of menthol helped to maintain the body weight.
Conclusion: Menthol improves antioxidant status in rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Thus, use of menthol is recommended for treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome.
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Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Lung Capacity of Active-, Previous-, and Non-Smoker Students

D. Hammoudi , A. Sanyaolu, D. Adofo , I. Antoine
Aims: Cigarette smoke predisposes a person to a lot of preventable diseases; this study aimed at comparing lung function in active, previous and non-smoking students.
Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 77 students from the St. James School of Medicine, Anguilla, campus in the Caribbean who were active-, previous- or non-smokers were randomly sampled. The Forced Vital Capacity to Forced Expiratory Volume ratio in one second called the Tiffeneau-Pinelli Index was used.
Findings: The mean FEV/FVC ratio for smokers was lower than that for non-smokers and ex-smokers in both tests. The FEV/FVC ratio by sex was higher in females for both tests. There were significant differences among the races with Caucasians having the lowest mean value of 86.04 and 85.88 for test 1 and 2, respectively. Higher ratio than 0.7 for smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers was recorded for mean FEV/FVC ratio.
Conclusion: There are no differences in FEV/FVC ratio between smokers and non-smokers and ex-smokers.
 
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Anxiety Management Skills Training in Students; an Analytic Review

M. Ahani
Introdution: One of the main problems of our schools is not helping the problematic students. Unfortunately, instead of being ready to help those who are retarded or in a state of maladaptation, most of them turn away from them and show a repulsive attitude. In the face of seemingly weak students, they are unloved and inadvertently abandoned and repressed. In most of the above cases, these problems are related to students' anxiety and threaten their mental health now and in the future. One of the variables related to mental health is anxiety.
Conclusion: So that the results of some studies have shown that anxiety affects their health and has a negative effect on their body, anxiety and function, and by reducing and increasing anxiety, mental health symptoms and its sub-branches are affected. Anxiety is now a social issue and one of the fundamental foundations of mental health. Researchers and physicians have shown great interest in studying children's anxiety for a variety of reasons, as childhood anxiety is a dangerous and important factor in the development of behaviors such as delinquency, dropout, and violence in adolescence and adulthood. Almost half of the antisocial children in adolescence continue to behave similarly. Also, half of the antisocial adolescents engage in antisocial behaviors in adulthood.
 
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Antidepressant-Like Effects of Menthol via Dopaminergic System; Using Forced Swimming Test in a Mice Model

G. Mohaghegh Daghigh , L. Soeibipour , S. Abakelia
Aims: Antioxidants are known to have protective and beneficial effects in the depression. Menthol is an antioxidant compounds in some plants. On the basis of our knowledge, no scientific study has investigated the antidepressant-like effects of menthol. Therefore, present study was thus conducted to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of menthol by forced swimming test (FST) through dopaminergic system in a mice model.
Materials & Methods: The mice were intra-peritoneally (i.p.) administrated with menthol (10-30mg/kg) 1 h before the FST. For evaluating the involvement of the dopaminergic system in the antidepressant activity of menthol, SCH 23390 (a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist), sulpiride (a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist) and haloperidol (non-selective dopamine receptor antagonist) were administered 15 min before menthol administration (10mg/kg).
Findings: Intra-peritoneally administration of menthol reduced immobility time and increased swimming and climbing times. It did not also cause significant changes in spontaneous locomotor function in the open-field test (OFT). In addition, pre-treatment of the mice with SCH23390, sulpiride, haloperidol blocked the anti-immobility effect of menthol in the FST.
Conclusion: Administration of menthol exerted antidepressant-like effects through dopaminergic (D1 and D2) system.
 
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Effects of Curcumin on GLUT4, Erα and Insulin Resistance Genes Expression in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Rats

G. Dzigandzli , M. Askaripour , S. Rajabi , M.K. Shahmoradi
Aims: Polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the most common endocrine disorders in the women and animals. Some common hormonal therapies are used to treat the PCOS condition. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of curcumin on rats with PCOS by evaluation of the gene expression of the GLUT4 and Erα and insulin resistance.
Materials & Methods: Following induction of PCOS, sixty Sprague–Dawley female rats were divided into four groups including: (1) Control group (2) Control PCOS (3 & 4) those treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg of curcumin respectively. Body weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin serum (FIS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and gene expression of GLUT4 and Erα were evaluated.
Findings: Induction of PCOS increased body weight, FBG, FIS, HOMA-IR and decreased gene expression of GLUT4 and Erα (p<0.05), but oral administration of curcumin could alleviate adverse effects of PCOS on the mentioned parameters (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Curcumin alleviates adverse effects of polycystic ovary syndrome.
 
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Medical Stability of Color Effects in Eyes

F. Mohammadkhani Orouji , Z. Saeid
Intoduction: The retina, like other parts of the body, gets tired when it is in opposite positions, and in the meantime, red light makes the eye more tired than green and blue. If we stare at a small colored spot for a while and then look at the white pages instead of the colored spot, we will see the complementary color of the colored spot. In this way, the eye that is tired of the green color will see the color of the magenta instead of green, and if the spot is red, the eye will see the cyan when changing. The view of two-colored areas adjacent to each other changes under different conditions, for example, yellow and red on a dark background are much more visible than on a light background. This phenomenon is reversed for green and blue.
Conclusion: A white spot appears on the yellow background as blue and if it is on the red background green and finally on the green background a pale pink. During the day, eye sensitivity to colors will vary depending on the food a person consumes. For example, eating carrots enhances vision in low light.
 
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Supplementation by Biochemical Parameters in Diabetic Patients; a Review Study

M. Milani Fard
Introdaction: Diabetes is one of the most important endocrine diseases and one of the problems of human societies today. In diabetes, due to the occurrence of insulin resistance, plasma insulin levels increase, and due to a disorder in glucose metabolism, it eventually leads to an increase in blood glucose levels. Plasma total cholesterol levels of LDL-C and VLDL-C increase and HDL-C decreases. Changes in lipid profile can be a contributing factor to cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. In addition, higher triglyceride levels lead to the development of insulin resistance. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Familact supplementation, containing seven different probiotic strains, on biochemical parameters of lipid profile and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Conclusion: In lipid profile assay; Factors of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and TG are measured. In glycemic control, fasting blood sugar (FPG), blood insulin level, and insulin resistance will be measured.
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The Effect of Aerobic and Anaerobic Fitness on Separation Anxiety, Generalized Anxiety, Social Phobia, Obsessive–Compulsive Behaviors, Panic and Agoraphobia and Physical Injury Fears in Children with Tic Disorder

Noori P.
Aims: Tics are known to have negative effects on psychosocial performance in children and also for their family. Exercises are appropriate strategies for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. This study evaluates the effect of aerobic and anaerobic fitness on psychological function in children with tic disorder, and evaluation of their effects by questionnaires completed by their parents.
Materials & Methods: A randomized controlled trial was carried out for 12 weeks in children’s with motor tics. Children were randomly assigned into three groups: aerobic, anaerobic and Control (without exercise). To investigate the tic severity, Yale global tic severity scale was used. Parents completed Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale Child and Parent Versions in pre-test (pre-interventions) and post-test (after 12 week exercises). This study assessed the effects of aerobic, and anaerobic fitness, the effect of time (pre-test & post-test), and their interaction on psychological function.
Findings: The results showed that aerobic and anaerobic fitness significantly decreased Separation Anxiety, Panic and Agoraphobia, Physical Injury Fears, Social Phobia, Obsessive-Compulsive and Generalized Anxiety (P<0.05) compared to control group.
Conclusion: In sum, aerobic and anaerobic fitness could alleviate psychological disorders in children with tic syndrome. It can be suggested parents of children with tic to force their children for performing aerobic and anaerobic fitness in order to alleviation of disorders.
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Mental and Muscle Relaxation in Water Decreases Liver Enzymes and Inflammatory Markers in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Forghani N., Rahimian Boogar M., Faramarzi H.
Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased over the past years. NAFLD occurs when liver cells begin to collect fat droplets. Liver enzymes are the best indicator for assessing liver status. Incidence of this disease in women is higher than men, although opposite results have been reported. NAFLD patients have unhealthy lifestyle in both diet and physical activity. In the present study, the effect of mental and muscle relaxation in water was investigated to evaluate changes in liver enzymes and inflammatory markers (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) of NAFLD patients.
Materials & Methods: The present study was a randomized clinical trial with pretest-posttest and follow-up with control group. Liver enzymes and inflammatory markers include IL-6 and CRP were measured before and after mental and muscle relaxation in water. Finally, the data analysis was made with independent samples t-test for baseline variables in two groups, paired t-test and two-way mixed ANOVA (repeated measures) used for measuring indices in pretest and posttest of within group and between groups respectively. Also, the correlation test was used to evaluate the correlation between age and FBS with liver enzymes.
Findings: We found significant reductions in measured indices (FBS, AST, ALT, ALP, IL-6, and CRP), within the treatment group in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05).  Also, there were significant differences in means of AST (P < 0.001), ALT (P = 0.002), ALP (P=0.021), IL-6 (P < 0.001), and CRP (P = 0.019) between two groups after mental and muscle relaxation in water.
Conclusion: our results demonstrated that mental and muscle relaxation in the water had a significant role in improving and reducing the symptoms of NAFLD patients.
 
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Effect of Nano-Phytosome of Quercetin on Mice Liver Infected with Plasmodium berghei

M. Davoodi, F. Ahmed , M. Panizai , Z. Obeidavi
Aims: Malaria is one of most important diseases especially in tropical regions. Flavonoids are known to have beneficial properties that could be profitable. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of nano-phytosomes of Quercetin on liver damages of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei.
Materials & Methods: A total of 60 male BALB/c mice were intra-peritoneally infected by administration of 106 P. berghei-infected RBCs. Animals were acclimatized for 7 days and divided into 5 groups; 0.9% isotonic saline (as negative control), saline treated (as positive control), 2mg/kg of Hydroxychloroquine sulfate treated for 4 days (HF), 10mg/kg of nano-phytosomes of Quercetin treated for 4 days (NQ), and 10mg/kg of nano-phytosomes of Quercetin + 2mg/kg of Hydroxychloroquine sulfate for 4 days (NQ+HF). Histo-pathological parameters and pro-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated.
Findings: Administration of P. berghei could increase the scores for histo-pathological parameters and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (p<0.0001). Administration of Hydroxychloroquine sulfate and nano-phytosomes of Quercetin could alleviate adverse effects of P. berghei on histo-pathological parameters (p<0.05).
Conclusion: A combination of nano-phytosomes of Quercetin and Hydroxychloroquine sulfate shows the best effect on treatment of Plasmodium berghei infections.
 
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Effectiveness of Metronidazole Ointment on the Pain of Hemorrhoidectomy Patients

F. Mahdavi , R. Azhough
Aims: Recently, the use of metronidazole in reducing pain after hemorrhoids has been considered and it has been shown that the oral form of this drug can significantly reduce pain after hemorrhoidectomy; However, other studies have not confirmed the effect of oral metronidazole in reducing pain. The use of oral form has limitations compared to the local form due to its general effects. Therefore, in this study, the benefits of using metronidazole topical form in pain control after hemorrhoidectomy were evaluated.
Instrument & Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed in 2019 with the participation of 94 hemorrhoidectomy patients in Imam Reza Hospital (Tabriz Medical Sciences); For half of the participants, metronidazole topical ointment was administered three times daily and for the other group, placebo ointment was administered. Patients' pain intensity was measured using a VAS questionnaire and compared between the two groups.
Findings: Intensity in the first hours after surgery as well as the first two weeks after surgery (measured daily) in the group receiving topical metronidazole was significantly lower than in the placebo group; The dose of acetaminophen codeine in the placebo group up to day 14 was significantly higher than the group receiving metronidazole.
Conclusion: Topical metronidazole can reduce postoperative pain. In addition, the pain after defecation and the need for analgesia are significantly reduced. However, further studies are needed for the widespread use of this form of medicine in the clinic.
 
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Effects of Oral Administration of Pulegone on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats

A. Rabinovich , N. Romanoff , D. Mordvinov , M. Ivanov
Aims: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has been applied to induce the toxicity and hepatic fibrosis. Natural antioxidants are known as efficient and safe treatments for hepatotoxicity compared with synthetic antioxidants. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of pulegone in carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats.
Materials & Methods: Twenty rats were randomly assigned into four groups including control animals that received olive oil, Toxic control that administrated with 30% CCl4, Pulegone-20 & 30 that administrated with pulegone 20mg/kg and 30mg/kg, respectively, with in along to 30% CCl4. The liver levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, phospholipids, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and vitamins C and E were evaluated.
Findings: Administration of CCl4 increased levels of cholesterol, triacylglycerides and lipid oxidation, but it also reduced levels of phospholipids, SOD, CAT, GSH, GPx, and vitamins C and E (p<0.05). Oral administration of pulegone, especially in the higher levels, could reverse negative effects of CCl4 (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Using pulegone is recommended for liver protection due to its vital therapeutic antioxidant properties.
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Modulation Effects of Carvacrol on Inflammatory and Antioxidant System’s Gene Expression of Diabetic Rats

S.A. Tabibzadeh Dezfuli, M. Ehsani , O. Lakzaei Azar
Aims: Diabetes has been known as a prevalence disorder and the use of common drugs has been faced many issues with multiple limitations. This study aimed to evaluate the use of carvacrol, as a novel agent, for treatment of diabetes.
Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, a single dose of streptozotocin (55mg/kg body weight) was used to induce the diabetes in rats. The animals were devided into 5 groups; healthy (negative control), diabetic (positive control), and diabetic given carvacrol in 5-, 10- and 15mg/kg body weight/day of carvacrol in neutral sterile olive oil solution. The levels of malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities were evaluated. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α expression in liver were assessed.
Findings: Streptozotocin increased the levels of malondialdehyde, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α and also decreased activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (p<0.05). Oral administration of carvacrol, especially 15mg/kg body weight/day, decreased the levels of malondialdehyde, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α and also increased activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in comparison to diabetic control (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Carvacrol decrease the negative effects of diabetes on inflammation and antioxidant status.
 
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Obesity and its Association with Childhood Diabetes; an Analytic Review

L. Saboktakin
Introduction: Incidence of diabetes in children, causes and risk factors for this complication, types of diabetes in children, the need to follow the recommendations, management and control of type 1 diabetes and nutritional tips to control diabetes in children, we will report. Type 1 diabetes is more common in children and type 2 diabetes is more likely to occur in adults, especially after the age of 40. Although type 1 diabetes accounts for only five to 10 percent of all cases of diabetes, it is the most common type of diabetes in children. In fact, 85% of the most recently diagnosed types of diabetes are in children and young people under 18 And for this reason, it is also called juvenile diabetes.
Conclusion: Obesity is a major cause of diabetes in children. In this study, based on the available scientific evidence, the relationship between obesity and diabetes in children and its mechanism and pathophysiology are accurately stated.
 
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Effect of Carvacrol and Voluntary Exercise on Hippocampus Molecular Profile of High-Fat Dieted Male Rats

A. Baratashvili , E. Javakhishvili , E. Tarkhnishvili , I. Kvantidze
Aims: High-fat diet (HFD) is one risk factor in some disorders and increases oxidative stress. The use of carvacrol and voluntary exercise can be profitable. This study was thus conducted to evaluate the single and combined effects between carvacrol and voluntary exercise on gene expression in hippocampus of male rats fed with high-fat diet.
Materials & Methods: A total number of 60 adult Wistar male rats were divided into 5 groups: 1) Healthy control, 2) HFD group, 3) VE group that received HFD plus voluntary exercise, 4) Carvacrol group received HFD plus Carvacrol and 5) VE + Carvacrol group that received HFD plus Carvacrol and voluntary exercise. Gene expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (Trk-B), synapsin I and Cyclic AMP-Response Element Binding protein (CREB) were investigated.
Findings: HFD significantly decreased expression of BDNF, Trk-B, synapsin I and CREB, but inclusion of carvacrol and the use of voluntary exercise could significantly increased gene expression of BDNF, Trk-B, synapsin I and CREB (p<0.05). The best responses were observed in animals fed with carvacrol in along to voluntary exercise (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Carvacrol and voluntary exercise improve gene expression of BDNF, Trk-B, synapsin I and CREB in rats fed with HFD.
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Relationship Between Serum CRP Levels and Mortality; one Year After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

H. Mohammadipour Anvari , S. Sadeghi
Aims: Today, several studies have been performed to determine the relationship between this factor and the mortality rate of patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery, which has sometimes been favorable in predicting short-term mortality (1 month) of these patients without conclusions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum CRP levels before general anesthesia and one-month mortality in patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
Instrument & Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study that was performed during 2018 to 2020 in Shahid Madani Hospital (Tabriz Medical Sciences) with the participation of patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. CRP was measured before anesthesia and its association with one-month mortality was investigated. Findings: The difference between the fat and blood sugar elements was observed in the deceased and non-deceased groups, so that the most obvious difference was in the average cholesterol. Also, there was no significant difference in the mean HDL as a risk-reducing factor. In deceased patients, the mean hsCRP was 8.89 and higher than the mean hsCRP in the non-deceased group was 6.39. (p=0.146) Also, the mean CPKMB as a known cardiac marker in deceased patients increased slightly (p=0.851).
Conclusion: The use of hsCRP should be combined with patient age, history of hypertension, history of smoking and history of diabetes mellitus.
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