Germany Journal

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Physical Education of Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Kermanshah, Iran.


Background and purpose:  Tics have adverse effects on psychosocial performance in children and their family. Exercises are commonly used for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of open- versus closed-skill exercises on psychological function in children with tic disorder.
Materials and Methods:  This randomized controlled trial was carried out for 8 weeks in children’s with motor tics. Children were randomly assigned into three groups: Closed (running on treadmill), Open (tennis exercise), and Control (without exercise). The Yale global tic severity scale was used to determine the tic severity. Parents completed Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale Child and Parent Versions in pre-test (pre-interventions) and post-test (after 8 week exercises). The effect of time (pre-test & post-test) and exercises (Control, Closed, and Open) and their interaction were evaluated.
Results:  The results showed that open exercises significantly decreased Separation Anxiety, Panic and Agoraphobia, Physical Injury Fears, and Generalized Anxiety (P<0.05), but closed exercises reduced Physical Injury Fears (P<0.05). Both the exercises did not have significant effects on Social Phobia and Obsessive–Compulsive (P>0.05).
Conclusion:  In sum, open exercises could alleviate psychological disorders in children with tic syndrome. It can be advised to use open exercises in people with motor tic.